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Give us a call at: Living arrangements vary by cruise line, but mostly by shipboard position. In general two employees share a cabin with a shower, commode and a desk with a television set, while senior officers are assigned single cabins.
For the largest cruise operators, most "hotel staff" are hired from under-industrialized countries in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Caribbean, and Central America.
While several cruise lines are headquartered in the United States, like most international shipping company, ships are registered in countries including the Netherlands, the UK, the Bahamas, and Panama.
The International Labour Organization's Maritime Labour Convention,  also known as the "Seafarers' Bill of Rights,"  provides comprehensive rights and protections for all crewmembers.
The ILO sets rigorous standards regarding hours of work and rest, health and safety, and living conditions for crewmembers and requires governments to ensure ships are in compliance.
For cruise routes around Hawaii , operators are required to register their ships in the United States and the crew is unionized, so these cruises are typically much more expensive than Caribbean and Mediterranean.
Most cruise lines since the s have priced the cruising experience, to some extent, a la carte, as passengers spending aboard generates significantly more than ticket sales.
However, there are extra charges for alcohol and soft drinks, official cruise photos, Internet and wi-fi access, and specialty restaurants; it has been reported that the casino and photos have high profit margins.
Cruise lines earn significantly from selling onshore excursions keeping 50 percent or more of what passengers spend for these tours offered by local contractors.
Facilitating this practice are modern cruise terminals with establishments of duty-free shops inside a perimeter accessible only by passengers and not locals.
In one case, Icy Strait Point in Alaska, the entire destination was created explicitly and solely for cruise ship visitors.
Travel to and from the port of departure are the passengers' responsibility, although purchasing a transfer pass from the cruise line for the trip between the airport and cruise terminal will guarantee that the ship will not leave until the passenger is aboard.
Similarly, if the passenger books a shore excursion with the cruise line and the tour runs late, the ship is obligated to remain until the passenger returns.
Older cruise ships have had multiple owners. Some ships have had a dozen or more identities. Many cruise lines have a common naming scheme they use for their ships.
Some lines use their name as a prefix or suffix in the ship name such as the prefixes of " Carnival ", " AIDA ", " Disney ", or " Norwegian " and the suffix of " Princess ".
The addition of these prefixes and suffixes allows multiple cruise lines to use the same popular ship names while maintaining a unique identifier for each ship.
Due to slower speed and reduced seaworthiness, as well as being largely introduced after several major wars, cruise ships have never been used as troop transport vessels.
By contrast, ocean liners were often seen as the pride of their country and used to rival liners of other nations, and have been requisitioned during both World Wars and the Falklands War to transport soldiers and serve as hospital ships.
Cruise ships and former liners often find employment in applications other than those for which they were built. A shortage of hotel accommodation for the Summer Olympics led to a plan to moor a number of cruise ships in Athens to provide tourist accommodation.
On 1 September , the U. In , in response to the shutdown of UK airspace due to the eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano, the newly completed Celebrity Eclipse was used to rescue British tourists stranded in Spain as an act of goodwill by the owners.
The ship departed from Southampton for Bilbao on 21 April, and returned on 23 April. In , cruise ships were used to help transport residents off of some Caribbean islands destroyed by Hurricane Irma  as well as Puerto Rico residents displaced by Hurricane Maria.
Most cruise ships sail the Caribbean or the Mediterranean. A cruise ship that is moving from one of these regions to another will commonly operate a repositioning cruise while doing so.
The number of cruise tourists worldwide in was estimated at some 14 million. Petersburg, Tallinn, Stockholm and Helsinki.
Petersburg, the main Baltic port of call, received , passengers during the cruise season. According to CEMAR  statistics the Mediterranean cruise market is going through a fast and fundamental change; Italy has won prime position as a destination for European cruises, and destination for the whole of the Mediterranean basin.
There are also smaller cruise lines that cater to a more intimate feeling among their guests. Many American cruise lines to the Caribbean depart out of the Port of Miami , with "nearly one-third of the cruises sailing out of Miami in recent years.
Some UK cruise lines base their ships out of Barbados for the Caribbean season, operating direct charter flights out of the UK.
The busiest ports of call in the Caribbean for cruising in the year are listed below . The construction market for cruise ships is dominated by two European companies and one Asian company:.
A large number of cruise ships have been built by other shipyards, but no other individual yard has reached the large numbers of built ships achieved by the four above.
As most of the passengers on a cruise are affluent and have considerable ransom potential, not to mention a considerable amount of cash and jewelry on board casino and shops , there have been several high-profile pirate attacks on cruise ships, such as on the Seabourn Spirit and MSC Melody.
As a result, cruise ships have implemented various security measures. While most merchant shipping firms have generally avoided arming crew or security guards for reasons of safety, liability and conformity with the laws of the countries where they dock, cruise ships have small arms usually semi-automatic pistols stored in a safe accessible only by the captain who distributes them to authorized personnel such as security or the master-at-arms.
The ship's high-pressure fire hoses can be used to keep boarders at bay, and often the vessel itself can be maneuvered to ram pirate craft.
A recent technology to deter pirates has been the LRAD or sonic cannon which was used in the successful defense of Seabourn Spirit. Passengers entering the cruise ship are screened by metal detectors.
Explosive detection machines used include X-ray machines and explosives trace-detection portal machines a.
Security has been considerably tightened since September 11, , such that these measures are similar to airport security.
In addition to security checkpoints, passengers are often given a ship-specific identification card , which must be shown in order to get on or off the ship.
This prevents people boarding who are not entitled to do so, and also ensures the ship's crew are aware of who is on the ship.
CCTV cameras are mounted frequently throughout the ship. The design of cruise ships has changed dramatically during the past decades. One of the biggest changes has been moving the passenger cabins from inside the hull to the superstructure and adding individual balconies both due to customer demand and because, from a business standpoint, the cruise line can charge passengers much more than for inside staterooms.
This has considerably increased the overall height of the ships, making them more susceptible to side wind and waves. As a result, there have been concerns about the stability of modern passenger ships especially in heavy weather.
Because there is much more ship above the surface than beneath it, modern cruise ships may appear top-heavy to some.
Despite the large superstructure, the center of mass of modern cruise ships is relatively low. Thus, even though modern cruise ships may appear top-heavy, proper weight distribution ensures they are not.
Although most passenger ships utilize stabilizers to reduce rolling in heavy weather, they are only used for crew and passenger comfort and do not contribute to the overall intact stability of the vessel.
The ships must fulfill all stability requirements even with the stabilizer fins retracted. Norovirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in developed countries and is so widespread that only the common cold is reported more frequently.
The incubation period of the virus averages about 24 hours. In its coverage of a CDC study  regarding norovirus on cruise ships, the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that, "Perceptions that cruise ships can be luxury breeding grounds for acute gastroenteritis outbreaks don't hold water.
A recent CDC report showed that from to , only 0. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have shown that transmission among cruise ship passengers is primarily person-to-person; potable water supplies have not been implicated.
In , ships undergoing unannounced inspections in U. So outbreaks are found and reported more quickly on a cruise ship than on land; 2 Close living quarters may increase the amount of group contact; and 3 New passenger arrivals may bring the virus to other passengers and crew.
Other pathogens which can colonise pools and spas including those on cruise ships include Legionella , the bacterium which causes Legionnaires' disease.
Legionella , and in particular the most virulent strain, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, can cause infections when inhaled as an aerosol or aspirated.
Individuals who are immunocompromised and those with pre-existing chronic respiratory and cardiac disease are more susceptible. Legionnaires' has been infrequently associated with cruise ships.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is a form of E. Some cruise lines, such as Cunard , are taking steps to reduce environmental impact by refraining from discharges RMS Queen Mary 2 has a zero-discharge policy  and reducing their CO2 output every year.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with cruiser. Environmental impact of shipping. Cruise ship pollution and Cruise ship pollution in the United States.
A two-night, three-day cruise to nowhere can offer a quick vacation for a very reasonable price. Ships depart from their home port and sail in a loop to and from the same port, without any other stops.
The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 26 September Identity, Design and Culture. Giants of the Sea: The Ships that Transformed Modern Cruising. Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 27 August Dining in the Modern Cruise Industry".
Journal of Tourism History. Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 17 May International Transport Workers Federation.
Frommer's Cruises and Ports of Call. Deciphering the deals from cruise lines". Regent Seven Seas Cruises.
Retrieved 14 February The Cost of Tourism in the Caribbean. Retrieved 1 October Incidents involving cruise ships , sun-sentinel.
Are their designs dangerous? Archived 14 October at the Wayback Machine. Humans Invent, 20 January New Scientist, 16 January Norovirus Outbreaks on Cruise Ships on the Decline: Congressional Research Service Updated 6 February This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
But the opposite is true. One cruise ship emits as many air pollutants as five million cars going the same distance because these ships use heavy fuel that on land would have to be disposed of as hazardous waste.
Berger, Arthur Asa Ocean Travel and Cruising: Current Situation and Trends. Cartwright, Roger; Baird, Carolyn The Development and Growth of the Cruise Industry.
An Evolution in Design. An Inside Look at the Cruise Industry 2nd ed. Douglas, Norman; Douglas, Ngaire Global and Regional Issues in Cruising.
The Underside of the Cruise industry. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: Devils on the Deep Blue Sea: The History and Development of Cruising.
A Cruise Ship Primer: